Vienna (German: Wien Austro-Bavarian
Wean, see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city; with a population of about 1.7 million (2.2 million within the metropolitan area), and is by far the largest city in Austria as well as its cultural, economic and political centre
Founded around 500 BC, Vienna was originally a Celtic settlement. In 15 BC, Vienna became a Roman frontier city ("Vindobona") guarding the Roman Empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
During the Middle Ages, Vienna was home of the Babenberg Dynasty and in 1440 became residence city of the Habsburg dynasties from where Vienna eventually grew to become the capital of the Holy Roman Empire and a cultural centre for arts and science, music and fine cuisine. The Ottoman invasions of Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries were stopped twice just outside Vienna (see Siege of Vienna, 1529 and Battle of Vienna, 1683).
1805, Vienna became capital of the Austrian Empire — and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire — and played a major role in European and World politics, including hosting the 1815 Congress of Vienna. Adolf Hitler lived in Vienna from 1907 until 1913. The Academy Of Fine Arts of the city rejected him as a student. When Hitler became broke and homeless he stayed at homeless shelters like the one on the Meldemann Strasse. In 1918, after World War I, Vienna became capital of the First Austrian Republic. In 1938 Hitler spoke to the Austrian people from the balcony of the Neue Burg, a part of the Hofburg at the Heldenplatz. Between 1938 (Anschluß) and the end of the Second World War, Vienna lost its status as a capital to Berlin.
In 1945, the Vienna Offensive was successfully launched by the Soviets against the Germans holding Vienna. The city was besieged for about two weeks before it fell to the Soviets. After 1945, Vienna was again the capital of Austria. It was initially divided into four zones by the 4 Powers and was governed by the Allied Commission for Austria. Vienna became a hot-bed for international espionage between the Western and Eastern blocs.